Albert Pike's works are prodigious. Anti-Masons, however, fixate on one work alone. Here, less than 20 years after his death, a distinguished attorney, scholar, and Mason attempts to define and explain the philosophy of Pike. This work, published in the Masonic magazine, The Builder, in April, is itself detailed but it should give the more serious inquirer a wealth of information from which to determine the validity of the smears that anti-Masons make on the character and intent of this Trinitarian Christian, poet, and enormously popular man of his day.
Subscribe What is Philosophy? As complex as the modern world has become, it seems unlikely that most of what surrounds us is actually the result of the ancient practice of philosophy. Philosophy is an academic discipline that exercises reason and logic in an attempt to understand reality and answer fundamental questions about knowledge, life, morality and human nature.
Through the ages, philosophers have sought to answer such questions as, what is the meaning and purpose of life? How do we know what we know? What does it mean to possess consciousness? And, what is the value of morals?
Philosophers attempt to answer such questions through the philosophical method. The method usually begins when a philosopher examines his own beliefs and begins to doubt their validity. From his doubt, questions emerge. Before answering a question, the philosopher thoroughly analyzes it to ensure it is clearly and properly defined.
This helps narrow the path to the most precise answer. Next, the philosopher proposes possible answers to the question and provides reasoned arguments to support each one. The arguments are then critiqued by other philosophers, who may give rebuttals.
Through this process of criticism and judgment, known as dialectic, philosophers attempt to prove the rationality of their beliefs and discover fundamental truths. The roots of the physical sciences like physics and geology can be traced back to ancient philosophy.
Philosophy itself is generally considered a type of social science, like sociology or psychology. From that spawned many other disciplines: Modern philosophy contains six main branches of thought, each with their own unique focus: At first glance, it would appear that such study has little application in the real world.
Yet, philosophy shapes modern existence. Unlocking the secrets of knowledge acquisition is the primary concern of passionate educators of young people around the globe. Logic forms the basis of all computer technology, as more precise programming commands increase computing speed and efficiency.
Ethics plays a major role in medicine, law and foreign policy. Indeed, the hottest debates surrounding the issues of our time—abortion, capital punishment, welfare, environmentalism, torture and end-of-life care—all stem from philosophical questions.
Skepticism lies at the heart of philosophy.
Therefore, asking a question is more fundamentally important than answering one. A good philosopher recognizes the danger of accepting knowledge at face value. Social or scientific theories may be untested or contain personal bias; trusting them immediately could result in terrible consequences.
Today, philosophers can be found working in nearly every career field. Some are scientists developing ways to test household products without using animals.
Some are politicians and human rights activists fighting for changes in foreign policy that will alleviate war and poverty for millions of Third World citizens.
Some are economists seeking practical solutions to economic inequality. Still others are programmers working on the cutting edge of technology to develop faster and more efficient computer software.
Those who study philosophy also tend to lead fulfilling and successful lives.The natural rights philosophy, after all, was highly individualistic, emphasizing the responsibility of government for the protection of individual rights. Classical republicanism, on the other hand, emphasized the community, holding that the primary characteristic of good government is the furtherance of the common welfare.
This book became one of the most widely reprinted and influential works on philosophy. Locke’s doctrine of natural rights appeared at the outset of the French Revolution, in the Declaration of the Rights of Man, but his belief in the separation of powers and the sanctity of private property never took hold there.
in England, Germany. The European philosopher whose concept of Natural Rights had a great impact on American politics is A.) Montesquieu B.) Locke C.) Hobbes D.) Aristotle.
To deny valid property rights according to Locke is to deny human rights. The British philosopher had significant impacts upon the development of the Government of the UK and was central to the fundamental founding philosophy of the United States.
1. Biography. Relatively little is known for certain about Machiavelli's early life in comparison with many important figures of the Italian Renaissance (the following section draws on Capponi and Vivanti ) He was born 3 May in Florence and at a young age became a pupil of a renowned Latin teacher, Paolo da Ronciglione.
The idea of a social contract—that the state exists only to serve the will of the people—is one of the foundations of the American political system.
and abolitionists found support in Locke's theories of natural rights. Historians also have linked social contract theories to pivotal social movements such as those for Native American.