Fred van RaaijTilburg University ABSTRACT - Cross-cultural consumer research witnesses an increasing interest of researchers, both for the managerial strategy of multinational companies and in order to establish the universality or specificity of theoretical construct and findings. In this paper the validity of the hypothetical constructs is discussed in order to create functionally equivalent constructs across cultures and equivalence of samples from the cultures. A theoretical structure in which a hypothetical construct is embedded serves as a manner for attaining the functional equivalence of instruments and constructs in order to interpret the findings and to implement managerial strategy.
This is the second article in a three-part series. Introduction Response to Intervention RtI is a multi-tier approach to scaffolding instruction for a range of learners.
High-quality, research-based instruction and ongoing student assessments are essential components that must be rigorously implemented with fidelity within the RtI framework in order for the model to work well see the RTI Action Network for examples.
The implementation of RtI has moved the conversation of ensuring a free and appropriate public education to include the wellness of instructional and intervention support.
In urban schools, this inclusion has extraordinary potential, but there are also structural and cultural dynamics unique to urban schools that complicate the development and implementation of RtI.
These dynamics include lack of consistent attention to staff development for teaching students with a wide range of learning needs, intensity of racial and socio-economic segregation within the communities and schools, and an annual ebb and flow of resource allocation.
With such dynamics, RtI in urban schools must make various cultural adaptations. This article focuses on two areas of cultural adaptations that practitioners in urban schools must take into account when developing and implementing an RtI framework.
These adaptations are based on our research and practice-based experience working with school districts on implementing RtI and positive behavioral interventions and supports PBIS in schools addressing disproportionate representation of minorities in suspension and special education.
The first adaptation is the need for a deep culturally responsive lens among practitioners. Educators who take the time to heighten their awareness and understanding of the collective lived experiences of marginalized students have been found to be more successful at meeting the needs of these students in comparison to teachers who do not function from the same level of socio-consciousness Ladson-Billings, We propose that an RtI framework be built on a solid foundation Tier 1 that encourages educators to consider perspectives beyond their own Ladson-Billings, in a manner that promotes the three Rs of culturally responsive education: The second adaptation we discuss in this article is the organizational structures that safeguard equity for marginalized students, specifically those surrounding the development and structure of RtI decision-making teams.
Depth of Culturally Responsive Lens Schools are institutions that convey, respond, and reinforce cultural values and expectations. The question is to whom are these cultural values and expectations responsive?
We focus on three specific dimensions of a culturally responsive lens: We recommend practitioners consider these important elements of a culturally responsive lens because they encourage consideration of power and privilege dynamics that are implicit in everyday interactions.
Invalidations like these have been found to impede positive, trustworthy practitioner—student relationships, which is why the main consideration in these interactions is the outcome and not the intent Sue et al. Studies have shown that although healthy American children across all races and ethnicities go through physical, cognitive, social, emotional, and moral developmental stages, there is a significant developmental difference between many Whites and racial and ethnic minority individuals in the types of experiences that frame these developmental stages.
It is critical to stress that these models are not intended to be used to pathologize racial and ethnic minority groups. As stated earlier, practitioners must understand the ways that adults and institutions respond to and support students of color that contribute to their outcomes.
A truly culturally responsive lens involves practitioners regularly examining school practices through multiple tiers i. Urban schools, particularly with a multicultural enrollment, enact practices that encourage the presence of this threat. The following are examples of such practices: In some schools we find the novel selections for Grades 6—12 as primarily having Black and Latino characters as the antagonist and White characters as the protagonist.
In sum, these elements of a culturally responsive lens involve practitioners making informed decisions about macro school issues by looking on the micro level—examining not only how culture is reflected in schools, but also from whose perspective we come to make these determinations.
Developing a Culturally Responsive Problem-Solving RtI Team While such activities are occurring, we have found it critically important to also intentionally redevelop school systems to operate as guardians of equity.
System frameworks like RtI and PBIS have the potential to be these guardians, but it requires the empowerment of gatekeeping teams that are generally tasked with implementing these frameworks to operate within a culturally responsive lens.The Psychological Well-Being and Sociocultural Adaptation of Short-Term International Students in Ireland Aileen O’Reilly, Dermot Ryan, Tina Hickey Aileen O’Reilly is a postgraduate student and Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Science (IRCHSS) scholar at the School of Psychology, University College Dublin, Ireland.
The Socio Cultural Adjustment Scale (SCAS; Ward & Kennedy, Assertiveness was associated with socio-cultural adaptation which was mediated by academic self-efficacy. Although multicultural personality was associated with both social support and socio-cultural adaptation, the mediation of social support between multicultural personality and.
students is increasing. The sociocultural and psychological difficulties of adaptation among international students can lead to academic issues and deprave mental health of young people.
My Cultural Identity - My culture identity, as I know it as is African American. My culture can be seen in food, literature, religion, language, the community, family structure, the individual, music, dance, art, and could be summed up as the symbolic level. Browsing Doctoral Theses by Subject "Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS)" ResearchArchive/Manakin Repository. creating a greater need for effective cultural competency in both inter- and intra-cultural situations. The current research programme, Now showing items of 1. Socio-cultural Adjustment of International Students as Expatriates in America The globalization of the world provides increased opportunities for cross-cultural interactions between countries. Numerous organizations, especially multinational companies, send employees, working as expatriates, to their overseas branches.
Russia and Sweden are multicultural societies with a long tradition of welcoming students from abroad. Cultural competence/Sociocultural Adaptation Scale.
From EduTech Wiki. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. The Socio-cultural Adaptation, Openness to Culture and Success of Sojourn of Foreign (Japanese) Students in Tarlac City, Philippines version of the Sociocultural Adaptation Scale of Ward & Kennedy ().
A Success Scale, a cultural similarity, length of stay in the host country, and.