Early years[ edit ] Educational psychology is a fairly new and growing field of study. Though it can date back as early as the days of Plato and Aristotle, it was not identified as a specific practice. It was unknown that everyday teaching and learning in which individuals had to think about individual differences, assessment, development, the nature of a subject being taught, problem solving, and transfer of learning was the beginning to the field of educational psychology. These topics are important to education and as a result it is important to understanding human cognition, learning, and social perception.
Such individuals act on impulse with little regard for the consequences of their actions. For example, showing no guilt for antisocial behavior. Robertson and Bowlby believe that short-term separation from an attachment figure leads to distress i.
They found three progressive stages of distress: The child cries, screams and protests angrily when the parent leaves. They will try to cling on to the parent to stop them leaving. If separation continues the child will start to engage with other people again.
They will reject the caregiver on their return and show strong signs of anger. This internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self, and others.
According to Bowlbythe primary caregiver acts as a prototype for future relationships via the internal working model. There are three main features of the internal working model: He believed that disruption of this primary relationship could lead to a higher incidence of juvenile delinquency, emotional difficulties, and antisocial behavior.
To test his hypothesis, he studied 44 adolescent juvenile delinquents in a child guidance clinic. To investigate the long-term effects of maternal deprivation on people in order to see whether delinquents have suffered deprivation.
According to the Maternal Deprivation Hypothesis, breaking the maternal bond with the child during the early stages of its life is likely to have serious effects on its intellectual, social and emotional development. Between and an opportunity sample of 88 children was selected from the clinic where Bowlby worked.
Of these, 44 were juvenile thieves and had been referred to him because of their stealing. The psychologist and social worker made separate reports. A psychiatrist Bowlby then conducted an initial interview with the child and accompanying parent e.
More than half of the juvenile thieves had been separated from their mothers for longer than six months during their first five years. In the control group only two had had such a separation. None of the control group were affectionless psychopaths.
Only 2 of the control group had experienced a prolonged separation in their first 5 years. He diagnosed this as a condition and called it Affectionless Psychopathy. According to Bowlby, this condition involves a lack of emotional development, characterized by a lack of concern for others, lack of guilt and inability to form meaningful and lasting relationships.
The supporting evidence that Bowlby provided was in the form of clinical interviews of, and retrospective data on, those who had and had not been separated from their primary caregiver.
This meant that Bowlby was asking the participants to look back and recall separations. These memories may not be accurate.
Bowlby designed and conducted the experiment himself. This may have lead to experimenter bias. Particularly as he was responsible for making the diagnosis of affectionless psychopathy. Another criticism of the 44 thieves study was that it concluded affectionless psychopathy was caused by maternal deprivation.
This is correlational data and as such only shows a relationship between these two variables.The social learning theory has three basic principles which make the breakdown of the theory very clear.
The first principle is that people can learn through observation (Boeree, ). Bandura had conducted a well-known experiment known . In social learning theory, Albert Bandura Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, How to reference this article: Download this article as a PDF.
How to Write a Psychology Essay PDF version Printer-friendly Email this . A learning theory attempts to explain how people and animals learn, whereas the social learning theories take to a different level; they attempt to explain how organisms learn in social settings.
Three important concepts of Bandura’s social learning theory include observational learning, modeling, and imitation. Bowlby () claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.e., there is a critical period.
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A cross-cultural application of social learning theory forms the center of this study where a group ( youths) of Puerto Rican adolescents is chosen as the study sample.
This study specifically focuses on how peer and personal perception of substance use influence alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use.