Excellent Proofreading and Writing Results The results section is the part of the scientific paper around which everything else is built. The introduction describes why the results needed to be obtained, the methods how they were obtained and the discussion explains the results. The results section is just a presentation of the data. There should not be any discussion in the results section that goes in the discussion section.
Data is expressed as number within the sample who possess the characteristic. Probability determined using a Mann- Whitney U test. Why is Table 1 in most studies?
Shows that demographic and prognostic variables were evenly balanced in the process of random allocation of subjects to experimental and control groups. Components of Results section Results should answer main hypothesis or research question s Order of presenting results is arbitrary May be done in Table 1 in less-complicated studies; or be set apart to emphasize its importance.
Results that are "sidelights" should not receive equal weight When presenting the results for the main hypotheses, consider: Clear, concise, simple Is enough detail presented to allow the reader to determine whether the effect of the experimental treatment vs.
Were adverse effects reported? Do not state any differences were present between groups unless a significant P value is attached.
You select those descriptive and inferential statistics you wish to use, and place them in the order that seems reasonable to you. Tables and Graphs Presentation Tables and graphs must stand alone Can a member of your department unfamiliar with the study pick up your graph and explain its meaning to you?
Text should highlight the importance or meaning of the figures and tables, not repeat the data contained within them. Tables and graphs both carry a necessary part of the message- use both Do the numbers add up? Are baseline values for the groups similar?
Are tables and graphs clearly labeled and appropriately scaled? Are the results of statistical analysis presented? Can one determine what statistical test produced the result? Choosing graph types To compare proportions and relative amounts How big?
To show correlations how well does one thing predict another? If your results agree with previous work, fine. If they do not, explain why not, or you may leave it unresolved "We cannot account for the difference seen in Were there any problems with carrying out the method as originally planned?
Not enough men in the study? Unanticipated amounts of side effects or pain? Failure to look at a crucial time interval? Any unsettled points in results? Look forward Implications for patient care, or for theory Suggestions for future research "If I had to do it over I would Conclusion Beware inappropriate conclusions beyond the range of the data, beyond the design of the study Abstract Contains all sections of paper Introduction with clinical importance and a key reference or two Methods in pertinent detail Results of testing the main hypothesis and most significant other results only Discussion a sentence or two on main implications or conclusion Structured abstracts See current abstracts in Anesth Analg or Anesthesiology?
Is ondansetron as effective as droperidol in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting? Miller PharmD, Michael P. The cost of these drugs often results in the use of less expensive antiemetics such as droperidol.
Common practice is to treat nausea and vomiting only after it has occurred. Anesth Analg ; The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference between ondansetron and droperidol in preventing PONV. After institutional review board approval and with written informed consent, a controlled, double-blinded study was conducted with male and female patients, ASA status I to III, randomly assigned into 2 groups with the aid of a computer-generated table of random numbers.
All patients underwent elective intra abdominal procedures. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or desflurane in oxygen.
Five minutes prior to induction of general anesthesia, patients received either ondansetron 4 mg intravenously IVor droperidol 1. Syringes of identical appearence containing either agent were prepared by the satellite pharmacist, who alone was aware of group assignment.
All data was collected by the principal investigators in a blinded fashion, rating PONV using a visual analogue scale of 0 to Five patients were eliminated from the study; 1 was lost to follow up, 2 patients exceeded the surgical time limit of 4 hours, 1 patient did not receive general anesthesia, and 1 patient did not receive the general anesthesia protocol as described.
The groups did not differ significantly in age, weight, height, ASA status, or doses of intraoperative drugs. Pretreatment with droperidol resulted in an overall Self-Criticism at the Heart of Writing a Discussion Section For this purpose, you should criticize the experiment, and be honest about whether your design was good enough.
If not, suggest any modifications and improvements that could be made to the design.
Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper.
There are elements of the discussion that . Do not introduce new results in the discussion section. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a specific finding for an interpretation because it may confuse the reader.
The description of findings [results] and the interpretation of their significance [discussion] should be distinct sections of your paper.
How to write the results and discussion. Michael P.
Dosch CRNA MS June Results. Be happy! You’re getting there. Just a small amount of writing to go from this point. The results and discussion are (relatively) cut and dried. The results section should be written in the past tense.
Focus on being concise and objective. You will have the opportunity to give your own interpretations of the results in the discussion section. The Discussion section needs to follow from your results and relate back to your literature review. Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section.
Make sure that everything you discuss is covered in the results section.