Taking a more global view, the prestigious British Medical Journal BMJ looks at various attempts to tackle obesity and notes that obesity is caused by a complex and multitude of inter-related causesfuelled by economic and psychosocial factors as well as increased availability of energy dense food and reduced physical activity. The authors broke down the causes into the following areas:
It has also changed significantly over time. Most of this extra food energy came from an increase in carbohydrate consumption rather than fat consumption. In the United States, subsidization of corn, soy, wheat, and rice through the U.
Obese people consistently under-report their food consumption as compared to people of normal weight. Sedentary lifestyle See also: Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends A sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity. The World Health Organization indicates people worldwide are taking up less active recreational pursuits, while a study from Finland  found an increase and a study from the United States found leisure-time physical activity has not changed significantly.
As ofmore than 41 of these sites on the human genome have been linked to the development of obesity when a favorable environment is present.
The term "non-syndromic obesity" is sometimes used to exclude these conditions. Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of varying food availability, and individuals with greater adipose reserves would be more likely to survive famine.
This tendency to store fat, however, would be maladaptive in societies with stable food supplies.
Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes listed above as well as some congenital or acquired conditions: Social determinants of obesity The disease scroll Yamai no soshi, late 12th century depicts a woman moneylender with obesity, considered a disease of the rich.
While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally.
There are a number of theories as to the cause but most believe it is a combination of various factors. The correlation between social class and BMI varies globally. A review in found that in developed countries women of a high social class were less likely to be obese.
No significant differences were seen among men of different social classes. In the developing world, women, men, and children from high social classes had greater rates of obesity.
The decrease in strength of correlation was felt to be due to the effects of globalization. A similar relationship is seen among US states: It is thought that in developed countries, the wealthy are able to afford more nutritious food, they are under greater social pressure to remain slim, and have more opportunities along with greater expectations for physical fitness.
In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses.
Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4. Gut bacteria See also: Infectobesity The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages.
Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity.
Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined.
Pathophysiology of obesity There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.
In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamusa region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure.
There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood. Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity.
Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children.
The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.The term obese describes a person who's very overweight, with a lot of body fat.
It's a common problem in the UK that's estimated to affect around 1 in every 4 adults and around 1 . Obesity is common, serious, and costly. The prevalence of obesity was % and affected about million of US adults in ~ [Read CDC National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) data brief PDFKB]Obesity-related conditions include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and certain types of cancer that are some of the leading causes of preventable, premature death.
A dramatic increase in diabetes and other diseases related to childhood obesity in the United States has added millions of dollars to health care costs, a study said Wednesday. "As overweight. Some people with extreme obesity suffer from depression.
Talk to your doctor about the best treatment, as some anti-depressant medications can cause weight gain. . OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults overweight - at least million of them clinically obese - and is a major contributor to the.
Obesity is a growing problem, rivaling world hunger in the number of people that suffer from it. Obese people were thought to be mainly the rich, but poor people can also suffer as the food industry supplies cheaper food of poorer quality.
The food industry are reluctant to take too many measures that could affect their bottom line, preferring to blame individuals instead.