Popular examples included Ourselves Among Others: Cross-cultural studies[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies is an adaptation of the term cross-cultural to describe a branch of literary and cultural studies dealing with works or writers associated with more than one culture.
International Differences in Work-Related Values was published. The original data set, derived fromquestionnaires in 20 different languages comparing 88, respondents from 66 countries in 50 occupations, was eventually stabilized to include 53 countries and regions Hofstede, a.
The survey instrument could be divided into those questions relevant to work satisfaction, perceptions, personal goals and beliefs, as well as demographics.
Hofstede's interest was restricted to those questions pertinent to values or " Using theoretical guidance on the mammoth data set, Hofstede extracted the fundamental blueprint of his conceptualization of four basic dimensions, or indices, across which employees of different countries may be meaningfully compared.
The four dimensions are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity. Briefly, power distance is the societal acceptance of hierarchy; uncertainty is the cultural tolerance of ambiguity; individualism is the societal predilection for inter-dependence; and masculinity is the culture's desire for sex-role differentiation.
Since this phenomenal beginning, Hofstede ; a, b, c; a, b, c; ; and others e. However, the discussion, with few exceptions e. Since workers are often consumers too, the purpose of this paper is to present Hofstede's work and to suggest that his ideas on work-related behaviors may be relevant to cross-cultural differences and similarities in consumptive behavior as well.
The discussion of the present paper will focus on the dimensions as conceptualizations, and not on the methodological and statistical methods employed to derive the four indexes. For those interested, the abridged c and complete version of Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values are excellent in their detail of the research and statistical analysis process used to derive these four dimensions.
The remaining differences are country-specific, i. Appendix B presents a table of the four major dimensions, a brief definition of the dimensions, the highest and lowest countries on each dimension, as well as selected implications for consumer behavior.
Power Distance Power distance is the societal desire for hierarchy. Expressed more eloquently, Hofstede b defines it as: Power distance is the extent to which the members of a society accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally People in Large Power Distance societies accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place which needs no further justification.
People in Small Power Distance societies strive for power equalization and demand justification for power inequalities among people when they occur.
Further, the colder the climate, the smaller the power distance.
Using a Darwinian type of explanation whereby social "pecking" orders are leveled and even negated by the need for mere survival, Hofstede speculates that " Human survival in colder climates presupposes protection against the hardships of nature, which means that only those people survived who were able to master the minimal technical skills necessary for survival.
In warmer climates the need for technology was less" p. Thus, where survival is dependent upon technology, social stratification becomes irrelevant.The Fresno State Cross Cultural and Gender Center is a great place to meet new people and find a sense of belonging on campus. We are excited to bring new programming, and honor existing, as well as collaborate with groups, clubs, and .
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