Ohio Country[ edit ] Map of the Ohio Country between — depicting locations of battles and massacres surrounding the area that would eventually become Ohio. The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country under the nominal control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from until In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, attracted by the fur trade.
It encompasses related harmful practices such as wife inheritance, bride kidnapping, girl-child compensation, and marriage as dispute settlement or debt payment, which are practiced in Tanzania.
Summary When Matilda H. Although Matilda had passed her exams and had been admitted to secondary school, her father told her: You have to get married because this man has already paid dowry for you.
I did not know my husband before.
I had nothing to do. I had no way out but to allow to get married. When I would get sick, he would not even have money to take me to the hospital. A study by the United Nations Population Fund UNFPA estimated that 37 percent of Tanzanian women aged years were first married or in union before the age of 18, between Human Rights Watch documented cases where girls as young as seven were married.
Child marriage is deeply embedded in Tanzanian society. In many cultures in Tanzania, girls are generally considered ready for marriage when they reach puberty and marriage is viewed as a way to protect them from pre-marital sex and pregnancy that undermine family honor and may decrease the amount of dowry a family may receive.
Cultural practices such as female genital mutilation FGM also contribute to child marriage in some communities. Among the Maasai and Gogo ethnic groups, where Human Rights Watch conducted some of its research for this report, FGM is closely related to child marriage and is done primarily as a rite of passage to prepare girls, aged years, for marriage.
Many Tanzanians regard child marriage as way of securing financial security for themselves and their daughters.
Some girls see marriage as a way out of poverty, violence, or neglect.
Child labor in Tanzania may also be associated with a significant increase in marriage at an earlier age, as girls who face abuse and exploitation in their workplaces see marriage as a way to escape their suffering. Human Rights Watch investigated the factors contributing to child marriage, the severe harms and rights abuses associated with it, and the risks girls face when they resist marriage.
We also examined the gaps in the child protection system, the lack of protection for victims of child marriage, and the many obstacles they face in attempting to obtain redress, as well as shortcomings in existing laws and plans to combat child marriage.
By permitting child marriage, the government becomes responsible for the serious harms suffered by girls and women, thus violating many human rights recognized under international law. Girls married as children are usually unable to continue with their schooling and consequently have limited wage-earning prospects due to their lack of education.
Girls may experience domestic violence and marital rape, and receive little or no support during their marriages or when they leave. They are forced into adulthood before they are physically and emotionally mature and they struggle with the physical and emotional health effects of becoming pregnant too young.
These harmful effects take the heaviest toll on the youngest brides. Girls told Human Rights Watch that their parents or guardians withdrew them from school to marry, and they found it difficult to return to school after marriage.War and Economic History.
War has influenced economic history profoundly across time and space. Winners of wars have shaped economic institutions and trade patterns.
Wars have influenced technological developments. In some of the world's poorest countries, such as Sudan and Afghanistan, endemic warfare impedes economic development and.
The Influence of Population Growth Population affects the course of national economic development. But so do conclusions of this school of thought as expressed in an overview of the population-economic links published in by the U.S. National Research Council.2 In addition. contents / previous / next.
2. Corruption and Economic Development. Corruption is a complex phenomenon. Its roots lie deep in bureaucratic and political institutions, and its effect on development varies with country conditions. Assessing the role of political institutions in economic performance is not an easy task.
Long-standing, deep-rooted political and social challenges have shaped each national institution and. There are often political factors involved in why some countries remain poor, and one of those is bad government. Governments need to do lots of things to encourage development – they need to build and maintain infrastructure, and raise and spend finance wisely, on the right projects.
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