Information of Human Emotions Anger Anger is the emotion that expresses dislike or opposition toward a person or thing that is considered the cause of aversion. Psychologists consider anger a natural emotion needed for survival.
Emotions are specific and intense psychological and physical reactions to a particular event. As the light in her direction turned green, she stepped off the curb.
Suddenly, Mandy froze as a car shot right past her through the red light and crashed into a car already in the intersection. Mandy was not hurt.
The car that went through the red light was not that close to her, but she felt terrified, then weak and shaky. She was so upset that she started to cry.
That morning at school, whenever Mandy thought about the accident she had seen she felt nervous and shaky.
By lunchtime, when she talked to her friends about the accident, the shaky feeling was starting to wear off, and she was beginning to feel anger toward the driver of the car that had run the red light.
Although Mandy was not physically hurt, her mind and body were experiencing a strong emotional reaction to a dangerous situation. Emotions, often called feelings, include experiences such as love, hate, anger, trust, joy, panic, fear, and grief.
Emotions are related to, but different from, mood. Emotions are specific reactions to a particular event that are usually of fairly short duration. Mood is a more general feeling such as happiness, sadness, frustration, contentment, or anxiety that lasts for a longer time.
Although everyone experiences emotions, scientists do not all agree on what emotions are or how they should be measured or studied. Emotions are complex and have both physical and mental components. Generally researchers agree that emotions have the following parts: The component of emotions that scientists call subjective feelings refers to the way each individual person experiences feelings, and this component is the most difficult to describe or measure.
Subjective feelings cannot be observed; instead, the person experiencing the emotion must describe it to others, and each person's description and interpretation of a feeling may be slightly different.
For example, two people falling in love will not experience or describe their feeling in exactly the same ways.
Physiological responses are the easiest part of emotion to measure because scientists have developed special tools to measure them. People have very similar internal responses to the same emotion. For example, regardless of age, race, or gender, when people are under stress, their bodies release adrenaline; this hormone helps prepare the body to either run away or fight, which is called the "fight or flight" reaction.
Although the psychological part of emotions may be different for each feeling, several different emotions can produce the same physical reaction. Expressive behavior is the outward sign that an emotion is being experienced. Outward signs of emotions can include fainting, a flushed face, muscle tensing, facial expressions, tone of voice, rapid breathing, restlessness, or other body language.
The outward expression of an emotion gives other people clues to what someone is experiencing and helps to regulate social interactions. It readies the body to respond to threat by increasing heart rate, breath-Ing rate, and blood flow to the arms and legs. These and other effects prepare the body to run away or fight.
What Are The Sources of Emotions? Scientists have developed several theories about how emotions are generated based on subjective feelings, physiological responses, and expressive behavior.
The facial muscles involved in emotional expression are governed by nerves following a complex system of direct and indirect pathways to and from the motor cortex voluntary smile circuit under conscious control and the limbic system and brain stem spontaneous smile circuit not under conscious control.
This may explain why people's faces can express emotions like happiness, fear, and disgust without their being aware of it. The James-Lange theory American scientist William James and Danish scientist Carl Lange both studied the relationship between emotion and physical changes in the body.
In aboutthey independently proposed that feeling an emotion is dependent on two factors:Those emotions are Happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust c) Carroll Izard and coworkers - confirmed that these emotions are innate.
Infants by about ten weeks of age produce facial expressions of these six basic emotions. Based on their findings, the scientists pared down the number of irreducible emotions to just four: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear.
Beyond this, they argued, the more complex variations of emotion have evolved over the millennia under numerous social and cultural influences. Past research has generally categorized all emotions into six to 12 groups, such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise and disgust.
However, the Berkeley . The emotion categories described above can be classified into two groups. We refer to the first group as basic emotions, which include happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust (see sample images in Fig.
1 B–G).Herein, we use the term “basic” to refer to the fact that such emotion categories cannot be decomposed into smaller semantic labels. William James for example considers primary human emotions types as love, fear, grief and rage.
On the other hand Robert Plutchik considers types of human emotions as fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, acceptance and joy in this category.. He created the Plutchik’s wheel of emotions as a model to describe human emotions.
In fact, research has discovered seven basic types of emotions expressed in human faces: sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise, anger, contempt, and fear. Complex emotions such as jealousy, love, and pride are different from basic emotions and are more likely to be dependent on cultural influences than are more basic emotions.